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Project Gutenberg's Encyclopedia, vol. 1 ( A - Andropha

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to the Indus.  Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his 
successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and 
of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in 
the administration of his kingdom.  He encouraged commerce, 
and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much 
to facilitate it.  To foreigners, especially Christians, he 
showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony 
and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his 
confidence.  His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds 
of tyranny and cruelty.  His own family, especially, suffered 
from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and 
the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders. 

See The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir 
Robert Sherley, &c. (London, 1823); Sir C. R. Markham, 
General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, 1874). 

ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, 
the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan 
empire.  The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim 
to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D. 566-652), 
the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they 
regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as 
opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya.  Throughout 
the second period of the Omayyads, representatives of this 
family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by 
the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the 
reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy, 
their moral character and their administration in general, 
and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine 
jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the 
empire.  In the reign of Merwan II. this opposition culminated 
in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent 
from Abbas, who, supported hy the province of Khorasan, achieved 
considerable successes, but was captured (A.D. 747) and died 
in prison (as some hold, assassinated).  The quarrel was taken 
up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu'l-Abbas 
as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab 
(750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph. 

The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual 
strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts, 
in place of the old-fashioned austerity of thought and 
manners.  Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred 
the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against 
the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid 
(786--809) and Mamun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary 
splendour.  But the empire as a whole stagnated and then decayed 
rapidly.  Independent monarchs established themselves in 
Africa and Khorasan (Spain had remained Omayyad throughout), 
and in the north-west the Greeks successfully encroached.  
The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish 
slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim 
(833-842).  Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was 
constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed 
b.  Raik.  Province after province renounced the authority 
of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally 
Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb. 28th, 1258).  
The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, 
confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, 
but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who 
was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I. 

See CALIPHATE (Sections B, 14 and C), where a 
detailed account of the dynasty will be found. 

ABBAS MIRZA (c. 1783-1833), prince of Persia, was a 
younger son of the shah, Feth Ali, but on account of his 
mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed 
him.  Entrusted with the government of a part of Persia, he 
sought to rule it in European fashion, and employed officers 
to reorganize his army.  He was soon at war with Russia, and 
his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, 
anxious to checkmate one another in the East.  Preferring 
the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against 
Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance, 
and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous 
peace.  He gained some successes during a war between Turkey 
and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his 
army, and a treaty was signed in 1823.  His second war with 
Russia, which began in 1825, was attended with the same want of 
success as the former one, and Persia was forced to cede some 
territory.  When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought 
to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was 
nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the 
task died at Meshed in 1833.  In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed 
Mirza, succeeded Feth Ali as shah.  Abbas was an intelligent 
prince, possessed some literary taste, and it noteworthy 
on account of the comparative simplicity of his life. 

ABBAS-TUMAN, a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of 
Tiflis, 50 m.  S.W. of the Borzhom railway station and 65 
m.  E. of Batum, very picturesquely situated in a cauldron-shaped 
valley.  It has hot sulphur baths (93 1/2 deg. -118 1/2 deg.  
Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.). 

ABBAZIA, a popular summer and winter resort of Austria, in 
Istria, 56 m.  S.E. of Trieste by rail.  Pop. (1900) 2343.  It 
is situated on the Gulf of Quarnero in a sheltered position at 
the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4580 ft.), and is surrounded 
by beautiiul woods of laurel.  The average temperature is 50 deg.  
Fahr. in winter, and 77 deg.  Fahr. in summer.  The old abbey, 
San Giacomo della Priluca, from which the place derives its 
name, has been converted into a villa.  Abbazia is frequented 
annually by about 16,000 visitors.  The whole sea-coast to 
the north and south of Abbazia is rocky and picturesque, 
and contains several smaller winter-resorts.  The largest 
of them is Lovrana (pop. 513), situated 5 m. to the south. 

ABBESS (Lat. abbatissa, fem. form of abbas, abbot), 
the female superior of an abbey or convent of nuns.  The 
mode of election, position, rights and authority of an abbess 
correspond generally with those of an abbot (q.v.). The 
office is elective, the choice being by the secret votes of the 
sisters from their own body.  The abbess is solemnly admitted 
to her office by episcopal benediction, together with the 
conferring of a staff and pectoral cross, and holds for life, 
though liable to be deprived for misconduct.  The council of 
Trent fixed the qualifying age at forty, with eight years of 
profession.  Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience 
of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending 
even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the 
bishop.  As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the 
spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot.  
She cannot ordain, confer the veil, nor excommunicate.  In 
England abbesses attended ecclesiastical councils, e.g. that 
of Becanfield in 694, where they signed before the presbyters. 

By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and 
nuns.  This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France 
and Spain, and even to Rome itself.  At a later period, A.D. 
1115, Robert, the founder of Fontevraud, committed the government 
of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior. 

In the German Evangelical church the title of abbess (Aebtissin) 
has in some cases--e.g. Itzehoe--survived to designate the 
heads of abbeys which since the Reformation have continued as 
Stifte, i.e. collegiate foundations, which provide a home 
and an income for unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth, 
called canonesses (Kanonissinen) or more usually Stiftsdamen. 
This office of abbess is of considerable social dignity, and 
is sometimes filled by princesses of the reigning houses. 

ABBEVILLE, a town of northern France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12 
m. from its mouth in the English Channel, and 28 m.  N,W. of 
Amiens on the Northern railway.  Pop. (1901) 18,519; (1906) 
18,971.  It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, and is 
built partly on an island and partly on both sides of the 
river, which is canalized from this point to the estuary.  The 
streets are narrow, and the houses are mostly picturesque old 
structures, built of wood, with many quaint gables and dark 
archways.  The most remarkable building is the church of St 
Vulfran, erected in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.  The 
original design was not completed.  The nave has only two bays 
and the choir is insignificant.  The facade is a magnificent 
specimen of the flamboyant Gothic style, flanked by two Gothic 
towers.  Abbeville has several other old churches and an 
hotel-de-ville, with a belfry of the 13th century.  Among 
the numerous old houses, that known as the Maison de Francois 
Ie, which is the most remarkable, dates from the 16th century.  
There is a statue of Admiral Courbet (d. 1885) in the chief 
square.  The public institutions include tribunals of first instance 
and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, and a communal 
college.  Abbeville is an important industrial centre; in addition 
to its old-established manufacture of cloth, hemp-spinning, 
sugar-making, ship-building and locksmiths' work are carried on; 
there is active commerce in grain, but the port has little trade. 

Abbeville, the chief town of the district of Ponthieu, first 
appears in history during the 9th century.  At that time 
belonging to the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards 
governed by the counts of Ponthieu.  Together with that county, 
it came into the possession of the Alencon and other French 
families, and afterwards into that of the house of Castillo, 
from whom by marriage it fell in 1272 to Edward I., king of 
England.  French and English were its masters by turns till 
1435 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the duke of 
Burgundy.  In 1477 it was annexed by Louis XI., king of France, 
and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in 
the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown. 

ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (1852- ), American painter, was born at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of April 1852.  He left 
the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at the 
age of nineteen to enter the art department of the publishing 
house of Harper & Brothers in New York, where, in company 
with such men as Howard Pyle, Charles Stanley Reinhart, Joseph 
Pennell and Alfred Parsons, he became very successful as an 
illustrator.  In 1878 he was sent by the Harpers to England 
to gather material for illustrations of the poems of Robert 
Herrick.  These, published in 1882, attracted much attention, 
and were followed by illustrations for Goldsmith's She 
Stoops to Conquer (1887), for a volume of Old Songs 
(1889), and for the comedies (and a few of the tragedies) of 
Shakespeare.  His water-colours and pastels were no less 
successful than the earlier illustrations in pen and ink.  
Abbey now became closely identified with the art life of 
England, and was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters 
in Water-Colours in 1883.  Among his water-colours are ``The 
Evil Eye'' (1877); ``The Rose in October'' (1879); ``An Old 
Song'' (1886); ``The Visitors'' (1890), and ``The Jongleur'' 
(1892).  Possibly his best known pastels are ``Beatrice,'' 
``Phyllis,'' and ``Two Noble Kinsmen.'' In 1890 he made his 
first appearance with an oil painting, ``A May Day Morn,'' at 
the Royal Academy in London.  He exhibited ``Richard duke of 
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