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Project Gutenberg's Encyclopedia, vol. 1 ( A - Andropha

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ABAE (rabai), a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in 
Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, 
one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. i. 46). It was 
rich in treasures (Herod. viii. 33), but was sacked by the 
Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state.  The 
oracle was, however, still consulted, e.g. by the Thebans 
before Leuctra (Paus. iv. 32. 5). The temple seems to have 
been burnt again during the Sacred War, and was in a very 
dilapidated state when seen by Pausanias (x. 35), though 
some restoration, as well as the building of a new temple, 
was undertaken by Hadrian.  The sanctity of the shrine 
ensured certain privileges to the people of Abac (Bull.  
Corresp.  Hell. vi. 171), and these were confirmed by the 
Romans.  The polygonal wabs of the acropolis may still be 
seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill 
standing about 500 ft. above the little plain of Exarcho; 
one gateway remains, and there are also traces of town walls 
below.  The temple site was on a low spur of the hill, below the 
town.  An early terrace wall supports a precinct in which are 
a stoa and some remains of temples; these were excavated by the 
British School at Athens in 1894, but very little was found. 

See also W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, ii. p. 163i Journal 
of Hellenic Studies, xvi. pp. 291-312 (V. W. Yorke). . (E. GR.) 

ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian 
government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m.  S.S.W. 
of Krasnoyarsk, in lat. 54 deg. 20' N., long. 91 deg. 40' E. This is 
considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and 
is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues 
of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics.  
Peter the Great had a fort built here in 1707.  Pop. 2000. 

ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various 
species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a 
richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl.  This sort 
of Haliotis is also commonly called ``ear-shell,'' and in 
Guernsey ``ormer'' (Fr. ormier, for oreille de mer). 
The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and 
other places on the southern Californian coast, and when 
polished makes a beautiful ornament.  The mollusc itself is 
often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan. 

ABANA (or AMANAH, classical Chrysorrhoas) and PHARPAR, 
the ``rivers of Damascus'' (2 Kings v. 12), now generally 
identified with the Barada (i.e. ``cold'') and the A`waj 
(i.e. ``crooked'') respectively, though if the reference 
to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic 
version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern 
Taura.  Both streams run from west to east across the plain of 
Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose 
themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the 
borders of the great Arabian desert.  John M'Gregor, who gives 
an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the 
Jordan, affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, 
the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana 
and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as 
one of the most complete and extensive in the world.  As the 
Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge, 
its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or ``rivers'', the 
name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana. 

(1758-1792), French statesman, and nephew of Calonne.  He was 
Louis XVI.'s last minister of war (July 1792), and organized 
the defence of the Tuileries for the 10th of August.  Commanded 
by the Legislative Assembly to send away the Swiss guards, he 
refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent 
to Orleans to be tried.  At the end of August the Assembly 
ordered Abancourt and the other prisoners at Orleans to 
be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude 
Fournier, ``the American.'' At Versailles they learned of the 
massacres at Paris, and Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners 
were murdered in cold blood on the 8th of September 1792.  
Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime. 

ABANDONMENT (Fr. abandonnement, from abandonner, to 
abandon, relinquish; abandonner was originally equivalent 
to mettrea bandon, to leave to the jurisdiction, i.e. of 
another, bandon being from Low Latin bandum, bannum, order, 
decree, ``ban''), in law, the relinquishment of an interest, 
claim, privilege or possession.  Its signification varies 
according to the branch of the law in which it is employed, 
but the more important uses of the word are summarized below. 

ABANDONMENT OF AN ACTION is the discontinuance of proceedings 
commenced in the High Court of Justice either because the 
plaintiff is convinced that he will not succeed in his action 
or for other reasons.  Previous to the Judicature Act of 1875, 
considerable latitude was allowed as to the time when a suitor 
might abandon his action, and yet preserve his right to bring 
another action on the same suit (see NONSUIT); but since 1875 
this right has been considerably curtailed, and a plaintiff who 
has deilvered his reply (see PLEADING), and afterwards wishes 
to abandon his action, can generally obtain leave so to do only 
on condition of bringing no further proceedings in the matter. 

ABANDONMENT IN MARINE INSURANCE is the surrender of the ship 
or goods insured to the insurers, in the case of a constructive 
total loss of the thing insured.  For the requisites and 
effects of abandonment in this sense See INSURANCE, MARINE. 

DESERTION, and the abandonment or exposure of a 
young child under the age of two, which is an indictable 
misdemeanour, is dealt with under CHILDREN, CRUELTY TO. 

ABANDONMENT OF DOMICILE is the ceasing to reside permanently 
in a former domicile coupled with the intention of choosing a new 
domicile.  The presumptions which will guide the court in deciding 
whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be 
inferred from the facts of each individual case.  See DOMICILE. 

ABANDONMENT OF AN EASEMENT is the relinquishment of some 
accommodation or right in another's land, such as right of 
way, free access of light and air, &c. See EASEMENT. 

ABANDONMENT OF RAILWAYS has a legal signification in England 
recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of 
Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a 
railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it. 

ABANO, PIETRO D, (1250-1316), known also as PETRUS DE 
APONO or APONENSIS, Italian physician and philosopher, 
was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name 
in 1250, or, according to others, in 1246.  After studying 
medicine and philosophy at Paris he settled at Padua, where 
he speedily gained a great reputation as a physician, and 
availed himself of it to gratify his avarice by refusing 
to visit patients except for an exorbitant fee.  Perhaps 
this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to 
be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations 
being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the 
devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the 
philosopher's stone.  He was twice brought to trial by the 
Inquisition; on the first occasion he was acquitted, and he 
died (1316) before the second trial was completed.  He was 
found guilty, however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed 
and burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the 
Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public 
proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in 
effigy.  In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical 
and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian 
writers.  His best known works are the Conciliator differentiarum 
quae inter philosophos et medicos versantur (Mantua, 1472; 
V.enice, 1476), and De venenis eorumque remediis (1472), 
of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593. 

ABANO BAGNI, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of 
Padua, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei; it is 6 m.  S.W. 
by rail from Padua.  Pop. (1901) 4556.  Its hot springs and 
mud baths are much resorted to, and were known to the Ronlans 
as Aponi fons or Aquae Patavinae. Some remains of the 
ancient baths have been discovered (S. Mandruzzato, Trattato 
dei Bagni d' Abano, Padua, 1789).  An oracle of Geryon lay 
near, and the so-called sortes Praenestinae (C.I.L. i., 
Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and 
used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century. 

ABARIS, a Scythian or Hyperborean, priest and prophet 
of Apollo, who is said to have visited Greece about 770 
B.C., or two or three centuries later.  According to 
the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living 
without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of 
the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked 
miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod. iv. 36; 
Iamblichus, De Fit. Pythag. xix. 28). Suidas credits him 
with several works: Scythian oracles, the visit of Apollo to 
the Hyperboreans, expiatory formulas and a prose theogony. 

ABATED, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and 
metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the 
surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round 
the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief. 

ABATEMENT (derived through the French abattre, from the 
Late Latin battere, to beat), a beating down or diminishing or 
doing away with; a term used especially in various legal phrases. 

ABATEMENT OF A NUISANCE is the remedy allowed by law to 
a person or public authority injured by a public nuisance 
of destroying or removing it, provided no breach of the 
peace is committed in doing so.  In the case of private 
nuisances abatement is also allowed provided there be no 
breach of the peace, and no damage be occasioned beyond 
what the removal of the nuisance requires. (See NUISANCE.) 

ABATEMENT OF FREEHOLD takes place where, after the death of 
the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands before 
the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter out of 
possession.  It differs from intrusion, which is a similar 
entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for life, to 
the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man; and from 
disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent expulsion 
of a person seised of the freehold. (See FREEHOLD.) 

ABATEMENT OE DEBTS AND LEGACIES. When the equitable assets 
(see ASSETS) of a deceased person are not sufficient to 
satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate 
proportionately, and they must accept a dividend.  Also, in 
the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which 
they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the 
legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given 
specially to any particular legacy (see LEGACY). Annuities 
are also subject to the same rule as general legacies. 

ABATEMENT IN PLEADING, or plea in abatement, was the 
defeating or quashing of a particular action by some matter of 
fact, such as a defect in form or the personal incompetency 
of the parties suing, pleaded by the defendant.  It did not 
involve the merits of the cause, but left the right of action 
subsisting.  In criminal proceedings a plea in abatement was at 
one time a common practice in answer to an indictment, and was 
set up for the purpose of defeating the indictment as framed, 
by alleging misnomer or other misdescription of the defendant.  
Its effect for this purpose was nullified by the Criminal Law 
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