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Project Gutenberg's Encyclopedia, vol. 1 ( A - Andropha

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Leiden, 1861; and Historia Abbadidarum (Scriptorum 
Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. II.) 

D', (1815-1893), two brothers notable for their travels in 
Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century.  They 
were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish 
mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815.  The parents 
removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received 
a careful scientific education.  In 1835 the French Academy 
sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results 
being published at a later date (1873) under the title of 
Observations relatives a! la physique du globe faites au 
Bresil et en Ethiopie. The younger Abbadie spent some 
time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for 
Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838.  They visited 
various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known 
districts of Ennarea and Kaffa, sometimes together and 
sometimes separately.  They met with many difficulties and 
many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues, 
Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed 
in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries.  After 
collecting much valuable information concerning the geography, 
geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the 
brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their 
materials for publication.  The younger brother, Arnaud, paid 
another visit to Abyssinia in 1853.  The more distinguished 
brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies 
relating both to his geographical results and his political 
intrigues.  He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who 
impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to 
Kana.  But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers 
have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts, 
though wrong in his contention--hotly contested by Beke--that 
the Blue Nile was the main stream.  The topographical results 
of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860-1873 in 
Geodesie d'Ethiopie, full of the most valuable information and 
illustrated by ten maps.  Of the Geographie de l'Ethiopie 
(Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published.  In Un 
Catalogue raisonne de manuscrits ethiopiens (Paris, 1859) 
is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by 
Antoine.  He also compiled various vocabularies, including 
a Dictionnaire de la langue amarinna (Paris, 1881), and 
prepared an edition of the Shepherd of Hermas, with the 
Latin version, in 1860.  He published numerous papers dealing 
with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient 
inscriptions.  Under the title of Reconnaissances magnetiques 
he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations 
made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red 
Sea and the Levant.  The general account of the travels of 
the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the 
title of Douze ans dans la Haute Ethiopie. Both brothers 
received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 
1850.  Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a 
member of the Academy of Sciences.  He died in 1897, and 
bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs 
a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its 
producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million 
stars.  His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.) 

ABBADIE, JAKOB (1654?-1727), Swiss Protestant divine, 
was born at Nay in Bern.  He studied at Sedan, Saumur and 
Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of 
doctor in theology at the age of seventeen.  After spending 
some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church, 
where he had great success as a preacher, he accompanied 
Marshal Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became 
minister of the French church in the Savoy, London.  His 
strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in 
his elaborate defence of the Revolution (Defense de la 
nation britannique, 1692) as well as in his history of the 
conspiracy of 1696 (Histoire de la grande conspiration 
d'Angleterre). The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe 
in Ireland.  He died in London in 1727.  Abbadie was a man 
of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known 
by his religious treatises, several of which were translated 
from the original French into other languages and had a wide 
circulation throughout Europe.  The most important of these are 
Traite de la verite de la religion chretienne (1684); its 
continuation, Traite de la divinite de Jesus-Christ 
(1689); and L'Art de se connaitre soi-meme (1692). 

'ABBAHU, the name of a Palestinian 'amora (q.v.) 
who flourished c. 279-320. 'Abbahu encouraged the 
study of Greek by Jews.  He was famous as a collector of 
traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud. 

ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses benJoseph), French 
rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of 
the 13th century.  He is also known as Yarhi from his birthplace 
(Heb.  Yerah, i.e. moon, lune), and he further took the 
name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel.  The descendant 
of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself 
to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself 
acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides 
as well as with the Talmud.  In Montpellier, where he lived 
from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence 
of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of 
the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old 
Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and 
revelation.  He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards 
collected under the title Minhat Kenaot, i.e. ``Jealousy 
Offering'') called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret 
of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy.  Ben Adret, 
with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a 
letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the 
study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years 
of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal 
section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 
1305.  The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain 
and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study 
of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish 
rabbis.  On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Philip 
IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he 
published the letters connected with the controversy.  His 
subsequent history is unknown.  Beside the letters, he was 
the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law. 

AUTHORITIES.--Edition of the Minhat Kenaot by M. L. 
Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, Les rabbins francais, 
pp. 647 foll.; Perles, Salomo ben Abrahann ben Adereth, 
pp. 15-54; Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v. ``Abba Mari.'' 

ABBAS I. (1813-1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun 
Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning 
dynasty.  As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha 
(q.v.), his real or supposed uncle.  The death of Ibrahim 
in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August 
following, on the death of Mehemet Alh--who had been deposed 
in July 1848 on account of mental weakness,--Abbas succeeded 
to the pashalik.  He has been generally described as a mere 
voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish 
gentleman of the old school.  He was without question a 
reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his 
time shut up in his palace.  He undid, as far as lay in his 
power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad.  Among 
other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories 
and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 
men.  He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering 
Egypt, but at the instance of the British government 
allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to 
Cairo.  In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two 
of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha. 

ABBAS II. (1874-- ), khedive of Egypt.  Abbas Hilmi Pasha, 
great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of 
July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive 
of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892.  When a boy he visited 
England, and he had an English tutor for some time in 
Cairo.  He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there 
passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna.  In addition to 
Turkish, his mother tongue, he acquired fluency in Arabic, 
and a good conversational knowledge of English, French and 
German.  He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden 
death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was 
barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority 
at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne.  For 
some time he did not co-operate very cordially with Great 
Britain.  He was young and eager to exercise his new 
power.  His throne and life had not been saved for him by the 
British, as was the case with his father.  He was surrounded 
by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for 
some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary 
as his great-uncle Abbas I. But in process of time he learnt 
to understand the importance of British counsels.  He paid 
a second visit to England in 1900, during which he frankly 
acknowledged the great good the British had done in Egypt, 
and declared himself ready to follow their advice and to 
co-operate with the British officials administering Egyptian 
affairs.  The establishment of a sound system of native 
justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest 
of the Sudan, the inauguration of the stupendous irrigation 
works at Assuan, the increase of cheap, sound education, 
each received his approval and all the assistance he could 
give.  He displayed more interest in agriculture than in 
statecraft, and his farm of cattle and horses at Koubah, 
near Cairo, would have done credit to any agricultural 
show in England; at Montaza, near Alexandria, he created 
a similar establishment.  He married the Princess Ikbal 
Hanem and had several children.  Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, 
the heir-apparent, was born on the 20th of February 1899. 

ABBAS I. (e. 1557-1628 or 1629), shah of Persia, called 
the Great, was the son of shah Mahommed (d. 1586) . In the 
midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of 
Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in 
1586.  Determined to raise the fallen fortunes of his country, 
he first directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbegs, 
who occupied and harassed Khorasan.  After a long and severe 
struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle 
near Herat in 1597, and drove them out of his dominions.  In 
the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole 
of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, 
or regained, a large extent of territory.  By the victory he 
gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the 
Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I. was forced to cede Shirvan and 
Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars 
were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas 
made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing 
the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 
1623.  In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, 
by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was 
diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the 
shah.  When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris 
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